Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:12:\"user warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:174:\"Table './innovate_wwwop/comments' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed\nquery: SELECT COUNT(*) FROM comments c WHERE c.nid = 647 AND c.status = 0\";s:5:\"%file\";s:57:\"/home/innovate/public_html/modules/comment/comment.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:991;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685669) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:12:\"user warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:442:\"Table './innovate_wwwop/comments' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed\nquery: SELECT c.cid as cid, c.pid, c.nid, c.subject, c.comment, c.format, c.timestamp, c.name, c.mail, c.homepage, u.uid, u.name AS registered_name, u.signature, u.signature_format, u.picture, u.data, c.thread, c.status FROM comments c INNER JOIN users u ON c.uid = u.uid WHERE c.nid = 647 AND c.status = 0 ORDER BY c.thread DESC LIMIT 0, 30\";s:5:\"%file\";s:57:\"/home/innovate/public_html/modules/comment/comment.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:991;}', 3, '', 'http in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:62:\"Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically\";s:5:\"%file\";s:63:\"/home/innovate/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/views.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:1118;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685669) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:109:\"Declaration of views_handler_field::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:83:\"/home/innovate/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_field.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:1148;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685669) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:178:\"Declaration of content_handler_field::element_type() should be compatible with views_handler_field::element_type($none_supported = false, $default_empty = false, $inline = false)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:98:\"/home/innovate/public_html/sites/all/modules/cck/includes/views/handlers/content_handler_field.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:229;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685669) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:136:\"Declaration of views_handler_argument::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:86:\"/home/innovate/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_argument.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:917;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685669) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:112:\"Declaration of views_handler_argument::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:86:\"/home/innovate/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_argument.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:917;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685669) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:132:\"Declaration of views_handler_sort::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:82:\"/home/innovate/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:165;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685669) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:128:\"Declaration of views_handler_sort::options_submit() should be compatible with views_handler::options_submit($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:82:\"/home/innovate/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:165;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685669) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:108:\"Declaration of views_handler_sort::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:82:\"/home/innovate/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:165;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685669) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:134:\"Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:84:\"/home/innovate/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:599;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685669) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:110:\"Declaration of views_handler_filter::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:84:\"/home/innovate/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:599;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685669) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:108:\"Declaration of views_handler_area::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:82:\"/home/innovate/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_area.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:81;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685669) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:133:\"Declaration of views_handler_area_text::options_submit() should be compatible with views_handler::options_submit($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:87:\"/home/innovate/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_area_text.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:121;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685669) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:127:\"Declaration of views_plugin_query::options_submit() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_submit($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:81:\"/home/innovate/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_query.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:181;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685669) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:139:\"Declaration of views_plugin_argument_validate::options_submit() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_submit($form, &$form_state)\";s:5:\"%file\";s:93:\"/home/innovate/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_argument_validate.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:87;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685669) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:12:\"user warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:236:\"Table './innovate_wwwop/cache_menu' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed\nquery: SELECT data, created, headers, expire, serialized FROM cache_menu WHERE cid = 'links:navigation:page-cid:node/647:1'\";s:5:\"%file\";s:45:\"/home/innovate/public_html/includes/cache.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:27;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685670) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:12:\"user warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:259:\"Table './innovate_wwwop/cache_menu' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed\nquery: SELECT data, created, headers, expire, serialized FROM cache_menu WHERE cid = 'links:navigation:tree-data:8f3708ccf2fea48977edaa9f5979756f'\";s:5:\"%file\";s:45:\"/home/innovate/public_html/includes/cache.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:27;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685670) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:12:\"user warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:315647:\"Table './innovate_wwwop/cache_menu' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed\nquery: UPDATE cache_menu SET data = 'a:2:{s:4:\\"tree\\";a:159:{i:2;a:2:{s:4:\\"link\\";a:37:{s:14:\\"load_functions\\";s:0:\\"\\";s:16:\\"to_arg_functions\\";s:0:\\"\\";s:15:\\"access_callback\\";s:11:\\"user_access\\";s:16:\\"access_arguments\\";s:32:\\"a:1:{i:0;s:14:\\"access content\\";}\\";s:13:\\& in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:12:\"user warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:345:\"Table './innovate_wwwop/cache_menu' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed\nquery: UPDATE cache_menu SET data = 'links:navigation:tree-data:8f3708ccf2fea48977edaa9f5979756f', created = 1544685671, expire = 0, headers = '', serialized = 0 WHERE cid = 'links:navigation:page-cid:node/647:1'\";s:5:\"%file\";s:45:\"/home/innovate/public_html/includes/cache.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:112;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82. in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:12:\"user warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:239:\"Table './innovate_wwwop/cache_menu' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed\nquery: SELECT data, created, headers, expire, serialized FROM cache_menu WHERE cid = 'links:primary-links:page-cid:node/647:1'\";s:5:\"%file\";s:45:\"/home/innovate/public_html/includes/cache.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:27;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685671) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:12:\"user warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:262:\"Table './innovate_wwwop/cache_menu' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed\nquery: SELECT data, created, headers, expire, serialized FROM cache_menu WHERE cid = 'links:primary-links:tree-data:c18cdfcacb0dd395c344e4c4965e252f'\";s:5:\"%file\";s:45:\"/home/innovate/public_html/includes/cache.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:27;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685671) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:12:\"user warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:20814:\"Table './innovate_wwwop/cache_menu' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed\nquery: UPDATE cache_menu SET data = 'a:2:{s:4:\\"tree\\";a:10:{i:578;a:2:{s:4:\\"link\\";a:37:{s:14:\\"load_functions\\";N;s:16:\\"to_arg_functions\\";N;s:15:\\"access_callback\\";N;s:16:\\"access_arguments\\";N;s:13:\\"page_callback\\";N;s:14:\\"page_arguments\\";N;s:5:\\"title\\";N;s:14:\\"title_callback\\";N;s:15:\\&am in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:12:\"user warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:351:\"Table './innovate_wwwop/cache_menu' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed\nquery: UPDATE cache_menu SET data = 'links:primary-links:tree-data:c18cdfcacb0dd395c344e4c4965e252f', created = 1544685671, expire = 0, headers = '', serialized = 0 WHERE cid = 'links:primary-links:page-cid:node/647:1'\";s:5:\"%file\";s:45:\"/home/innovate/public_html/includes/cache.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:112;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', ' in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:12:\"user warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:241:\"Table './innovate_wwwop/cache_menu' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed\nquery: SELECT data, created, headers, expire, serialized FROM cache_menu WHERE cid = 'links:secondary-links:page-cid:node/647:1'\";s:5:\"%file\";s:45:\"/home/innovate/public_html/includes/cache.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:27;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685671) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:12:\"user warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:264:\"Table './innovate_wwwop/cache_menu' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed\nquery: SELECT data, created, headers, expire, serialized FROM cache_menu WHERE cid = 'links:secondary-links:tree-data:5d6d3aaaaef5fba302ce62698fa37bbe'\";s:5:\"%file\";s:45:\"/home/innovate/public_html/includes/cache.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:27;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685671) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:12:\"user warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:385:\"Table './innovate_wwwop/cache_menu' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed\nquery: UPDATE cache_menu SET data = 'a:2:{s:4:\\"tree\\";a:0:{}s:10:\\"node_links\\";a:0:{}}', created = 1544685671, expire = 0, headers = '', serialized = 1 WHERE cid = 'links:secondary-links:tree-data:5d6d3aaaaef5fba302ce62698fa37bbe'\";s:5:\"%file\";s:45:\"/home/innovate/public_html/includes/cache.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:112;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/con in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:12:\"user warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:355:\"Table './innovate_wwwop/cache_menu' is marked as crashed and last (automatic?) repair failed\nquery: UPDATE cache_menu SET data = 'links:secondary-links:tree-data:5d6d3aaaaef5fba302ce62698fa37bbe', created = 1544685671, expire = 0, headers = '', serialized = 0 WHERE cid = 'links:secondary-links:page-cid:node/647:1'\";s:5:\"%file\";s:45:\"/home/innovate/public_html/includes/cache.inc\";s:5:\"%line\";i:112;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', &# in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134

Warning: Table './innovate_wwwop/watchdog' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: INSERT INTO watchdog (uid, type, message, variables, severity, link, location, referer, hostname, timestamp) VALUES (0, 'php', '%message in %file on line %line.', 'a:4:{s:6:\"%error\";s:14:\"strict warning\";s:8:\"%message\";s:44:\"Only variables should be passed by reference\";s:5:\"%file\";s:90:\"/home/innovate/public_html/sites/all/modules/custom/innovateus_menu/innovateus_menu.module\";s:5:\"%line\";i:38;}', 3, '', 'http://www.innovateus.net/content/transparent-materials', '', '54.82.10.219', 1544685671) in /home/innovate/public_html/includes/database.mysqli.inc on line 134
Transparent materials

Transparent materials

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Transparent means to allow light pass through the material. This allows the material to look clear and very bright with just one color or a spectrum of colors. If the material does not let light pass through completely it is called translucent. And if the material doesn't allow light to pass through at all it is called opaque.

 

Depending on how light and the material interact determines the transparency of the object. Light interacts by reflecting,refracting or transmitting with the object. For example water,glass allow light to transmit through them and don't reflect back any light which makes them look transparent. Optical transparency in crystalline materials  is dependent on how much light is scattered by the micro structures  present inside. 

 

The military is testing on a new material which is transparent and is considered the future material for replacing glass in armored vehicles. This transparent material is called ALONtm. ALONtm is  much lighter than glass and can help combat vehicles. ALONtm won't break or shatter like glass and help armored vehicles both on ground and air.

 

What is ALONtm?

ALONtm is a ceramic compound called aluminum oxynitride. It has high durability and  strength in holding up against a .30 caliber  multiple armor piercing rounds has made it the material of choice in armored vehicles.  ALONtm is scratch resistent which can help  the armored vehicles see better in combat situtaions. Airforce is looking at using ALONtm in some of its low flying planes such as the C-130Hercules and helicopters. 

 

The uses of ALONtm are limitless but the cost is still an issue. It is lot more expensive to get large sheets for the widows so researchers are at this point trying to work with the smaller pieces to make them into large windows. But many are optimistic, that this is a material that has many applications and with  increase in manufacturing  the material it might lessen the costs in the future and more affordable to use.

 

What is Alumina?

Another transparent ceramics that has gained interest recently is Alumina.  Their applications are being tested specially in lasers, armor vehicles and medical imaging. Alumina is Al2O3 which is also known as Aluminum oxide is an amphoteric oxide and is also known as Corundum. Corundum is  in the crystalline form of aluminum oxide. Rubies belong to this group of corundum which due to the impurities present gives the gems their characteristic color. Alumina is found in the ore bauxite which is the principle ore of Aluminum along with other forms of aluminum such as gibbsite and diaspore.

 

Alumina is used in lighting industry in sodium vapor lamps. It is fired at a temperature of 1800 degrees C to achieve the transparency in hydrogen gas. Alumina is used extensively in ceramics industry because of its low price and high performance

  • Alumina is hard, water resistant, and is stiff which makes it easy to mold into shapes.
  • Alumina has  good dielectric properties and thermal conductivity. Because of these characteristic features it is used in ceramics, armor, grinding wheels, abrasion resistant tubes, and as insulators.
  • The more popular gem Ruby belongs to the same conundrum family. When Alumina has impurities such as chromium it gives it a pink to red color.

 

 Other transparent materials that are gaining popularity are Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG).