Solar energy can be harnessed by using solar cells or solar panels which are an aggregation of solar cells. Solar panels convert light into electricity. Several individual solar cells or a single thin layer of solar cell make up a larger solar panel. Solar panel is technically known as photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel. Solar energy can be harnessed by using solar cells or solar panels which are an aggregation of solar cells. Solar panels convert light into electricity. Several individual solar cells or a single thin layer of solar cell make up a larger solar panel. Solar panel is technically known as photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel.
What are the technologies used in Solar Panel Manufacturing?
Crystalline Solar Panel: Solar panels are an aggregation of solar cells. Each solar cell is made up of small discs of highly-purified silicon. These solar cells are connected by a wire to the circuit. When sunlight falls on these cells the light gets converted into electricity and the electricity flows through the circuit. Solar cells can be single crystal or multi crystalline silicon material. These are cast in specially designed furnaces, called silicon ingots. The Ingots are then sliced into thin wafers. “Impurities” like boron and phosphorous are introduced into the silicon wafers to form p-n junction (Positive – Negative junction), using high temperature diffusion furnaces. Silicon wafers are thus converted into solar cells, these solar cells are interconnected to make the solar panel. When light rays from the sun strikes the material, electrons are dislodged, creating an electrical current which flows through the wires to through the circuit.
Thin Film Panel: Thin film Solar panels are manufactured using a thin film deposition on the substrate instead of using wafers. Materials such as Amorphous Silicon (a-si), copper indium selenide or cadmium telluride or cadmium sulphide, etc, can be used to form thin film. Thin film solar cellscells. These types of technologies are at various stages of development. Hence production of thin-film PV modules is limited. Thin film cells are expected to contribute a major portion of the total solar cells produced in the near future.
String Ribbon Technology: To make solar panels, a set of special parallel strings are pulled continuously through a small molten pool of silicon inside a custom furnace. On cooling and re-crystallizing silicon, a thin "ribbon" is created. The ribbon is then cut into wafers and further converted into solar cells which are then used in the production of solar panels.
How do solar panels work?
Solar panels or photovoltaic solar panels : Convert light energy into electrical energy. Silicon (Semiconductor material) which is added with impurities (generally boron and phosphorous) is exposed to sunlight. Typically the top layer is electrically positive and bottom is electrically negative thereby electrons move up from the bottom layer of silicon to the top layer resulting in increase in concentration of the electrons in the top layer. The free electrons from the top layer pass through electrical contacts on the surface of the top layer. These electrical contacts are attached to an external circuit, thus providing power to the electrical system attached to the panels.