Corn Syrup is a sweet-tasting syrupy liquid extracted from corn or maize starch. It contains significant amounts of maltose, glucose, and oligosaccharides. Corn Syrup is used as sweetening agents in processed foods, confectionaries, and beverages. It does not crystallize easily and is cheaper than granulated white sugar. There are two types : Light Corn Syrup which is almost colorless, odorless, and essentially flavorless, while Dark Corn Syrup is dark brown due to addition of caramel color. There are two grades: High Maltose Corn Syrup (HMCS) and High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS). Corn Syrup has limited shelf-life compared to other sweeteners.
Industrial production process for High Fructose Corn Syrup is described below:
Industrial manufacturing process for High Maltose Corn Syrup is described below:
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a type of corn syrup consisting mainly fructose. When glucose undergoes enzymatic processing, it is converted into HFCS. It is widely used in the United States. HFCS is mostly used in processed foods and beverages including caffeinated and non-caffeinated drinks, breads, lunch meats, breakfast cereals, energy bars, yogurts, and canned soups. High-fructose corn syrup is sweeter than sucrose. There are three types: HFCS 42, HFCS 55, and HFCS-90.
Cane Sugar is made from sucrose, whereas HFCS constitutes fructose and glucose units. On ingestion, HFCS controls the liver to deposit more fat into the bloodstream. Studies have suggested that HFCS may cause colon cancer. On the other hand, excessive consumption of Cane Sugar can cause obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Hence it can be concluded that both Cane Sugar and High-Fructose Corn Syrup are equally bad for health.
Once Glucose or Fructose is absorbed from the food, it ends up in the bloodstream. However, in the case of Fructose, it converted back to Glucose. Pancreatic cells release insulin ( hormone), which signals liver cells to absorb Glucose from the bloodstream. It is either stored in form of glycogen or metabolized immediately. Liver cells decompose glucose molecules into smaller molecules. During this disintegration process, huge amount of energy liberates from the Glucose. Hepatic cells utilize this energy to produce ATP molecules. Later, cells use ATP for their energy requirements. Glucose metabolism process is known as " Glycolysis ".
One tablespoon serving of Corn Syrup provides 2 milligrams of sodium, 14 grams of carbohydrates and 15 grams of sugars.