What is Enzyme Induction?

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Enzyme induction.

Enzyme induction is a process in which a molecule (e.g. a drug) induces (i.e. initiates or enhances) the expression of an enzyme. An enzyme inducer is a type of drug which binds to an enzyme and increases its metabolic activity. Many of the enzymes involved in drug metabolism may be up-regulated by exposure to drugs and environmental chemicals leading to increased rates of metabolism. This phenomenon is known as enzyme induction. Enzyme induction is a process where production of an enzyme is triggered or increased in response to changes in the environment that surrounds an individual You do not have access to view this node. The increase in enzyme expression creates a chain reaction as the enzyme begins to act in the body.

 

Enzymes that are susceptible to induction are said to be “inducible” and there are a number of inducible enzymes in the body that can kick into production when needed while remaining dormant otherwise. Enzyme induction can increase the metabolic clearance of a concomitantly administered drug, resulting in reduced efficacy, which may comprise the therapeutic effectiveness of a drug. As such, the FDA and other regulatory agencies recognize enzyme induction as a potential cause of drug-drug interactions.

 

What are Constitutive enzymes?

Microorganisms have many enzymes that function in the countless activities that produce a growing and dividing You do not have access to view this node. From a health point of view, some enzymes are vital for the establishment of an infection by the microbes. Some enzymes are active all the time. These are known as constitutive enzymes. However, other enzymes are active only periodically, when their product is required. Such enzymes are known as inducible enzymes.

 

What is Enzyme Repression?

Induction and repression are linked in that they both focus on the binding of a molecule known as RNA polymerase to DNA. Particularly, the RNA polymerase binds to a region that is immediately "upstream" from the region of DNA that code for a protein. The binding region is termed the ‘operator’. The operator acts to position the polymerase correctly, so that the molecule can then begin to move along the DNA, interpreting the genetic information as it moves along. The three-dimensional shape of the operator region manipulates the binding of the RNA polymerase. The configuration of the operator can be changed by the presence of molecules called ‘Effectors’. An effector can alter the shape of the polymerase-binding region so that the polymerase is more easily and efficiently able to bind. This effect is called induction. Conversely, effectors can associate with the operator and alter the configuration so that the binding of the polymerase occurs less efficiently or not at all. This effect is known as repression. Enzyme repression is when the repressor molecules prevent the manufacture of an enzyme. Repression typically operates by feedback inhibition.

 

What is the process of Enzyme induction?

Enzyme induction is a process where an enzyme is contrived in response to the presence of a specific molecule. This molecule is termed an inducer. Basically, an inducer molecule is a compound that the enzyme acts upon. In the induction process, the inducer molecule merges with another molecule, which is called the ‘repressor’ (a chemical compound that is designed to limit or prevent enzyme production, so there are no obstacles to enzyme production). The binding of the inducer to the repressor obstructs the function of the repressor, which is to bind to a specific region called an ‘operator’. The operator is the site to which another molecule, known as ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase, binds and begins the transcription (transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA) of the gene to produce the so-called messenger RNA that performs as a guide for the subsequent production of protein. Thus, the binding of the inducer to the repressor keeps the repressor from averting transcription, and so the gene coding for the inducible enzyme is transcribed. Repression of transcription is basically the default behavior, which is dominated once the inducing molecule is present. In bacteria, the lactose (lac) operon is a very well characterized system that operates on the basis of induction. An operon is a single unit of physically adjacent genes that function together under the control of a single operator gene.

 

Why is Enzyme induction important?

  • Inducer molecules encompass medications, toxins, and hormones produced by the body. So, understanding how enzyme induction works is essential to understand various reactions that occur inside the body. It is important for the pharmaceutical researchers to be familiar with how the drugs they develop will interact with the body and must also consider the possibility of drug interactions, where multiple drugs lead to enzyme induction and can make people experience adverse reactions to medication. Toxicologists also study the function of chemical compounds in the body on enzyme production to find out how toxins contribute damage and what need to be done to arrest or reverse damage.
  • Medical conditions that are related to over or underproduction of hormones in the body can engage enzyme induction, as can treatments where hormones are brought in. Experts who study the endocrine system which is a collection of glands and organs that produce and regulate hormones in the bloodstream to control many functions of the body, view at how and why the body produces hormones and what these hormones perform when they are released into the bloodstream. In some situations, where enzyme induction is activated by changing hormone levels, it is vital to know what the enzymes do, and how the body stops the enzyme production.

 

What is Enzyme Inhibition?

Enzyme inhibition is used to arbitrate various processes in the body and it can also be tied together in medical treatment for patients with increasing enzyme levels due to disease, exposure to toxins, and other problems. The contrary of induction is inhibition, where chemical signals get in the way with the production of enzymes. Enzyme induction and inhibition jointly are utilized by the body to be in charge of a number of reactions and communications that play a role in everything from natural cell death to digestion. 

 

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