The ovary is an ovum-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system. Ovaries are oval-shaped endocrine system glands, the group of glands that produce a variety of hormones human body needs to function appropriately. Ovaries are found in females, one on each side of the uterus. An ovum is a female reproductive cell. Ovaries in anatomically female individuals are similar to testes in anatomically male individuals. The ovaries produce the female hormones estrogen and progesterone, in addition to a minute quantity of testosterone. Each ovary has thousands of follicles competent of generating eggs for fertilization. Even if only one egg typically matures completely during ovulation, between 10 and 20 follicles start to mature during each monthly menstrual cycle.
How to describe the ovary?
The ovaries are a pair of female reproductive organs. The size of each ovary is about 1.5 inches long. They are located in the pelvis, one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries are connected to each other by the tubes called ‘Fallopian tubes’. Each ovary is about the size and shape of an almond. The ovaries have two major functions:
Ovarian follicles are the essential units of female reproductive biology, each of which is composed of approximately spherical aggregations of cells found in the ovary. They include a single oocyte (immature ovum or egg). These structures are every so often started to grow and develop, concluding in ovulation of typically a single competent oocyte in humans. These eggs/ova are only developed once every menstrual cycle (e.g. once a month in humans). A girl already has about 1,000,000 ovarian follicles, at the time of her birth. Each ovarian follicle includes a hollow ball of cells with an immature egg in the middle. In childhood, roughly half of ovarian follicles are absorbed by the body. When a girl reaches puberty and her menstrual cycle starts, only about 400,000 ovarian follicles are left to develop into mature eggs. Even though, only one egg completely matures during ovulation, somewhere between ten and 20 follicles starts the process of maturation every month. The surplus ovarian follicles are reabsorbed before ovulation takes place.
Estrogen: Estrogen is secreted by a number of cells in the follicle. On the way to ovulation, the follicle that has the maturing egg goes through the surface of the ovary. As soon as the matured egg reaches the ovarian surface, ovulation takes place when the follicle and the ovarian surface open letting the egg to drift out of the ovary. The progression of ovulation is commenced and governed by a fall in the hormone estrogen, often ‘etradiol’ to a low level. If the drop in estrogen levels happens, the hypothalamus, a part of the brain is indicated to boost its secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and as a result conveying a message to the pituitary gland to augment its secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The increase in FSH causes the growth of ten to 20 of the ovarian follicles.
Progesterone: Progesterone is also generated by the cells in the ovarian follicles soon before the ovulation take place. If pregnancy has not happened after ovulation, the empty follicle known as the corpus luteum, is reabsorbed into the body. If pregnancy has taken place, the corpus luteum generates hormones that aid to maintain the pregnancy.
Why is estrogen and progesterone important?
These hormones control the development of female body characteristics, such as:
Each month, during the menstrual cycle, an egg is released from one ovary.
After the egg is released from the ovary it travels to the oviducts, the funnel-shaped ends of the fallopian tubes where it starts its voyage of more than a few days into the uterus.
The mature egg is moved all along on its journey through the fallopian tubes by the muscle contractions similar to ocean waves in the fallopian tube.
The internal lining of each fallopian tube has cilia, the persistently thrashing microscopic hairs.
In case, if a woman undergoes an unprotected sexual intercourse, these cilia are the one which aids to shift the sperm towards the egg.
Often, the fertilization of an egg with sperm (conception) takes place in the part of the tubes that is nearest the ovary.
In order to reach the uterus, it takes around 5 to 6 days for the fertilized egg.
What happens to a woman during ovulation?
A number of women suffer from a twinge, a cramp, or some uneasiness in the lower back or abdomen during ovulation. Occasionally, women observe a tiny amount of vaginal discharge along with a tiny amount of blood at the time of ovulation. Several women misunderstand these symptoms for an ectopic pregnancy or appendicitis. Some other women suffer from headaches, gastric You do not have access to view this node, or a general malaise; while others women experience feeling much better during ovulation. When women experience these symptoms during ovulation it is called ‘Mittelschmerz or midcyle You do not have access to view this node’.
What are the diseases that may occur in ovary?
The diseases that occur in ovary of a woman are:
Ovarian cysts: They are fluid-filled sacs, identical to wounds. Ovarian cysts are normal among women during their reproductive periods and are growths that form on both the side of the two oval-sized glands on each side of the uterus. A good number of ovarian cysts are undamaging and leaves without any treatment.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): PCOS is the most common hormonal disorder among women. PCOS is a hormonal disorder that affects a predictable 7% of all women. In accordance with experts, the real number of women affected by PCOS may be as high as one out of ten just because several cases continue undiagnosed.