Heart and lungs together form the circulatory and cardiovascular systems of our body due to which the oxygen rich blood is efficiently reached to every part of the body and the oxygen poor blood or the deoxygenated blood is returned back to the lungs for purification. Pulmonary artery is one of the most important parts of the whole heart anatomy and performs a unique function in the whole blood transportation system.
Pulmonary artery is one of the two vessels branching from the pulmonary trunk is an integral part of the whole heart anatomy and is the vessel that transports de-oxygenated blood to the lungs coming from the right ventricles. The right pulmonary artery is longer of the two arteries. It passes transversely midline across the upper chest below the aortic arch and enters the Hilum in the right lung. The left pulmonary artery is the shorter one and enters the Hilum of the left lung. Although almost all arteries carry oxygen rich blood, pulmonary artery is an exception and instead of carrying blood to the body parts it transports the oxygen poor blood into the lungs for purification. Most of the arteries divide from aorta but the pulmonary artery goes further from the heart’s right ventricle into the left and the right pulmonary arteries.
The basic function of pulmonary artery is to carry the deoxygenated blood from the heart’s right ventricle into the lungs. The pulmonary artery connects the lungs and the right ventricle of heart and is divided into left pulmonary artery and right pulmonary artery. The deoxygenated blood collected from the body is sent back to the heart’s right ventricle. The pumping of blood is carried out in the heart by the counteraction of heart muscles which are present as lining in the right ventricle wall. In this way the oxygen poor blood is passed into the lungs via right ventricle. Here it is enriched with oxygen and resent to the left ventricle from where it is distributed to the body organs.
When the blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries is high, an individual suffers from pulmonary hypertension. There are multiple reasons of hypertension, but the main reason is obstruction causing retardation in pulmonary artery functioning. When such condition arises, the right ventricle slowly becomes weak and the right ventricular failure risk elevates.
Surprisingly the function of pulmonary artery is absent in fetus. Because, when the fetus is attached to the mother through umbilical cord, he gets required oxygen from the mother and hence does not require lungs to provide him with it. This is the only situation when the function of pulmonary artery is absent. The moment fetus becomes an infant and takes birth, the function of pulmonary artery begins.