Ileum is the end part of small intestine which is actively involved in the functioning of digestive system. It is placed in between the duodenum and colon and suck up the food that is digested. It is composed of muscular walls which enable the mixing and pushing of the food forward during the contraction or peristalsis process. The absorption surface area is enhanced by the innumerable villi, which are the finger like projections located internally to this muscular wall. The ileum receives good blood supply while passing by the walls and receive food molecules which are further transported to liver through hepatic portal vein.
The ileum is the end point of small intestine and extends into large intestine. It measures around 2 to4 m in length. Jejunum and ileum both have the presence of villi on their muscular walls which give them extra surface area due which enhances the scope of absorption of nutrients . Digestive system’s final process is completed here during which the liquid and food particles are broken into nutritional components like:
When this digestive blend moves through ileum of small intestine, the nutrients are absorbed by villi and transferred them to blood stream and liver. Fibers though remain undigested along with water and some vitamins which are further broken down when they reach large intestine.
The ileum is also known to absorb bile salts and other bile components apart from off course fats. Ileum pores are bigger than those in jejunum and hence vitamin B12, vitamins immersed in fatty liquids, bile salts, water, and electrolytes are sucked up by them with efficiency. The place where the ileum meets large intestine a valve is located to stop the material back flow into the small intestine. This is termed as ileocecal valve. The material passing the valve is pasty in nature by the time it reaches ileocecal valve.