There are four types:
A topical corticosteroid is used to decrease inflammation of the skin and relief itchiness caused by contact dermatitis, psoriasis, or eczema. Corticosterioids decrease synthesis of prostaglandins ( a group of lipid compounds) which induce above mentioned symptoms.
Topical creams and ointments constitute antihistamines as one of potent ingredients. They are commonly prescribed for localized itching due to insect sting. Oral antihistamine pill is highly effective in the treatment of widespread itching arising due to infectious disorder like chickenpox. Antihistamines check the production of histamine compounds in the human body. Histamine is synthesized as a defense against allergens or toxic compounds. Apart from itching, histamine also causes swelling. At times, topical antihistamines can trigger skin allergies. In that case, antipruritic cream should be stopped. Some antihistamines cause drowsiness.
Local anesthetics are prescribed for irritated patches of skin mostly caused by insect sting or bite. Local anesthetics are available in cream or spray form. These antipruritic drugs reduces itchiness by numbing the nerves near the affected site. However, local anesthesia should never be used for a longer period. It can trigger allergic reactions.
Calamine creams, emollients or lotions used to cure insect bites, and allergic rash (such as urticaria or sunburn) are known as soothing preparations. These prevents moisture loss from the skin and prevent dryness. They are mostly recommended for eczema, psoriasis and other dry skin conditions.
There are items easily available at home that can be effectively used as antipruritics. Some of them are listed below: