An Electric Motor is an appliance which converts the electrical energy into mechanical energy. With the advent of household appliances made of Electric Motors, our everyday life has become easy. Electric Motors function on the electro-magnetic field. The rotating element of an Electric Motor is termed as rotor and the fixed part is called as the stator. When electricity passes through the stator, a torque is generated which rotates the rotor. There are wide array of Electric Motors commercially available round the world. These Electric Motors are manufactured in different sizes to fit into multiple requirements. Fans, computers, disk drives, DVD player, or elevators, everything runs on Electric Motors. Technically, an Electric Motor is classified as AC motor, DC motor,and Universal motor.An alternating current (AC) motor runs on AC current. AC Electric Motors are available in two varieties: single phase and three phase. A DC Motor is further classified into brush , brushless, and stepper motors. Horsepower is the unit for measuring Electric Motors. Domestic Electric Motors comes in 1/2 or 1/4 horsepower. Electric Motors used in factories range in thousands of horsepower.
In 1821, British scientist Michael Faraday discovered the torque generated by the magnetic field. He experiemented on the fact that as current passed through a wire, it starts rotating around the permanent magnet . In 1832, William Sturgeon made the first DC Electric Motor. However, none of the Electric Motor became successful due to its high price. In 1873, the first commercial Electric Motor was invented by Zenobe Gramme.
A DC Brush Motor is the simplest Electric Motor. There is an electric coil in its core enveloped by permanent magnets. When electricity flows through it, a strong magnetic field is generated around the armature ( connected with the electric coil).
The left side of the armature is forced towards the left magnet and eventually attracted toward the right magnet. This torque causes the armature to rotate. When the armature reaches a horizontal position, the commutator alters the flow of current in the electric coil. Thus the magnetic field gets reversed. Then the rotation process repeats.
Advantages of DC Brush Motor:
Disadvantages of DC Brush Motor:
DC Brushless Motor is commercially known as electronically commutated motor. It has permanent magnets on the rotor. The electromagnet is placed in the stator. When electricity flows through the electromagnets, the shaft keep rotating.
Advantages of DC Brushless Motor:
Disadvantages of DC Brushless Motor:
Steeper Motor is a type of brushless motor used in automated systems. The rotation of the motor is controlled by a computerized control system. This category of motor are specifically used in robots where every movement (step) is feed as a program.
Advantages of DC Steeper Motor :
Disadvantages of DC Steeper Motor :
Universal Motor can be operated on both AC or DC current. Commercially this category of motor is known as series-wound motors. It is mostly used in household appliances such as food grinders, vacuum cleaners, food processors, blenders etc.
Advantages of Universal Motor:
Disadvantages of Universal Motor:
Single-phase AC Motor runs on a single phase power supply. Single phase motor is typically useful for home purposes.
Advantages of Single-phase AC Motor:
Disadvantages of Single-phase AC Motor:
A Three-phase AC Motor runs on a three phase power supply. Three phase motor is used for industrial purposes.
Advantages of Three-phase AC Motor:
Disadvantages of Three-phase AC Motor: