Print making is the art of creating or tracing an image by means of block, plate, stone or screen. Print making seems to have originated in China and started in Europe started around the 6th century. In the early stages of print making, it was not considered an art form but by the 18th century art prints began to be considered as originals and in 19th century artists began to produce limited editions along with the technical information to authenticate the work. Engraving images were executed on stones, bones and cave walls. At first Chinese produced a primitive form of print,called the rubbing over, around 2nd century AD. By the mid eighth century Japanese made the first prints, wood block rubbings of Buddhist charms.
What is printmaking?
Print making gives multiple original copies. Print is a shape made from a plate or stone or other object that is covered with ink and then it is pressed on to a flat surface like paper. Print making is done by using an engraved block, transfer paper or a film negative. Giclee(pronounced as zhee clay) print making is nothing but a color copy. The giclee print making was originated from the French word, gicler, which means to “squirt”. It is a high quality printer used to make color copies of computer or digital images. Artists use this technology to print original images while some others use it to produce color reproductions of their paintings.
What are the different types of Printmaking Techniques?
Printmaking is divided into: Relief, Intaglio, Plano graph and Stencil and under each category there are different techniques employed. Relief: Relief is a sculptural method. Sculpture in relief is created by raising the sculpted impression on the material above the background plane. This is done by lowering the background of the field and the sculpted impression outwardly raised.
Wood cut: Wood cut is also known as xylography. It is one of the relief processes where an image is engraved into the surface of a block of wood using gouges and chisels. In wood cut relief process the areas to show 'white' are engrave with a knife or chisel, and the image is shown in 'black' at the original surface level.
Wood Block: A wooden block is used as a printing form. The desired design is first implemented on a paper and then it is glued on a section of wood. The paper is sanded until it serves as a guide for carving. The image in the wood is thus a negative, or mirror-image. The wood surface after carving is inked and the paper is placed on the wood and pressure is applied so the transfer of image from woodblock to paper gives woodblock print.
Linocut: Linocut is a print made by carving the image in to a block of linoleum. The design is cut in to linoleum surface with the help of a sharp knife, with raised parts that are to be printed. The linoleum sheet is inked and it is pressed on a paper to create the engraved image on to the paper.
What is Intaglio?
Intaglio: Is the process where the design is carved below the surface of the matrix being used. In this case it is mostly metals such as copper,aluminum or stone. It is popular currently in concrete as well. Aluminum being a very resilient metal is a good material to work with in the Intaglio technique. The Intaglio technique involves using , etching, engraving, mezotint, aquatint, etc. The process involves making an image by making grooves below the surface of the metal. Then the ink is pushed into the grooves of the image that have been made. It is then pushed into a press with a damp paper on it and while it is being pushed the ink gets onto the paper from the grooves.
What are the different techniques in Intaglio?
The techniques to get these images are ,
Etching: This is the art of making prints from metal plate, which has been bitten with acid. The plate itself is covered with wax and the artist draw with a sharp needle like instrument. This is then exposed to acid which then eats through the metal leaving lines in the plate.
Engraving: This is done using a tool called burin. It is a harder skill to learn. the metal burin is pushed through the metal to make the image. The deeper the burin is pushed the wider the lines get. The lines formed above the surface are then scraped off.
Mezzotint: Mezzotint is a method of engraving areas of tone rather than lines. It is the first tonal method to be used. Mezzotint achieves tonality by roughening the plate with thousands of little dots through a metal tool with small teeth called a rocker. A good quality and richness in the print can be achieved.
Aquatint: Aquatint is a form of engraving with acid on a plate to some extent covered with varnish that produces a print somewhat similar to a watercolor. The plate is capable of holding ink and it is passed through printing press along with a sheet of paper which leaves an engraved image on the paper.
What is Planographic printing? What are the techniques in Planographic printing?
Plano graphic: In Plano graphics, the printing is done on a flat surface, rather than from a raised surface. The different planographic printing are Lithography, Monotyping.
Lithography : Lithography is a process of printing an image using a stone or metal plate with a smooth flat surface. An image is drawn on the flat surface of limestone or metal plate using a greasy medium. An image is drawn, painted or photographically applied the stone or plate using a greasy medium. Lithographic inks are oil based, the image will keep away water and allow ink. Then it pressed and rolled with rubber rollers. Paper is placed below it and after pressing image is transferred on to the paper.
Monotyping : Monotyping is done by drawing an image on a smooth and non-absorbent surface. Using a printing press which holds up the ink the image is transferred on to the paper.
What is Stencil?
Stencil:Stencil is a thin sheet material which does not allow moisture to pass through it. When paint is applied an image is formed under the surface of the sheet material. It acts as a water proof material and can be used to draw or paint shapes, letters, and patterns. Screenprinting and Pochoir come under Stencil.
Screen-printing : Screen printing is a technique for printing a flat image through a fine mesh to support an ink-blocking stencil. The areas which you don’t want to be printed are masked out on the screen. The frame which consists of ink is placed over the item and pressed through the screen to create the print. It can be used to print on a wide variety of applications, including paper, paperboard, plastics, glass, metals, fabrics etc.
Pochoir : Pochoir is a direct method of hand coloring throughout a stencil. This technique involves spray-painting which is done around a three-dimensional object to create a pessimistic of the object instead of an activist of a stencil design.
What is Silk Screen in printmaking?
Silk screen: It is generally originated in China. It involves the process of allowing ink to pass through different areas until the final composite image is achieved.
What is Drypoint?
Dry point: Dry point is done by directly engraving the image on to the plate with sharp pointed instrument.
What is Soft varnish?
Soft Varnish: This is the method of tracing images directly on to the plate by placing a paper on top of soft sticky ground and then traced over.