Fallacies arise when invalid forms of argument are used to debate a valid argument. Fallacies can be described as defects that can contribute towards the weakening of an argument. Arguments may be strong, weak or fallacious though it may not be all that easy to evaluate a particular argument as fallacious. Many logical fallacies appeal to emotion rather than reason. For example Arguments are waged out of outrage for something without offering any evidence for the argument. The main premise for the argument would be that the thing is outrageous, wrong or unacceptable.
The argument is carried out by appealing to the emotion of pity and diverting from the main focus of the issue. The logical fallacy arguments attempt to invoke pity to change the opponents. For instance in a burglary case, the main issue may be about the theft. But the focus of the argument shifts to the physical and mental state of the thief which may have spurred him to commit the theft. The argument thus seeks to appeal to the emotion of pity rather than taking a decision based on reason.
Appeal to force is a way of appealing to emotion instead of reason. In such a fallacy the arguments are directed towards a particular course of action by threatening the person with dire consequences. For example a political candidate tells the voters to vote for him or face the music. In such a logical fallacy the people may be goaded by fear induced by the force to take a particular action. The appeal here is to force a certain decision rather than arriving at a logical decision based o reason.
A straw man argument is a term used to describe a logical fallacy, wherein if one were to dissect or inspect the argument carefully, it wouldn’t make any sense. This is because the person is out only to prove that his argument or position is better than the opponent’s argument which he does by misrepresenting the actual argument. Straw man argument can be bunched up with various logical fallacies such as slippery slope, ad hominem, and red herring that are used in arguments ranging from religious debates to political or business arguments.
The red herring may be a logical fallacy but the argument is presented in a favorable light by focusing on an issue other than the real one. In such an argument an altogether new topic is introduced with the intention of diverting the attention of the arguer from the main topic. The red herring fallacy is primarily a fallacy of irrelevance as the premise of the argument is not logically related to the conclusion. For example In the Ad hominem fallacy the person is attacked instead of targeting the argument. Thus instead of regarding an argument to be full of lies, the person is called a liar. Thus emotionally-laden words are used to derogate the individual rather than dismissing his argument.