Although roads have been existent ever since man started moving places and traveling. But the changing modes of transport have changed the type of road construction. You would be surprised to know that before the 1920’s the roads in Canada and US were made of dirt. Dirt was easily available and the road was made by pressing the dirt evenly and removing the vegetation and rocks or stones in between. But these were difficult to maintain as strong rains could easily disturb the compactness of their surface. Today’s transport like buses, trucks are much more bulkier than the carts and carriages of the olden days and hence to make the roads more solid and strong, the technique of road construction and materials used have undergone a huge change.
In the modern era roads are much wider, solid and strong and the major highways and roads are divided into different lanes. These big wide roads help you to reach different destinations with ease. Maintenance of these roads too is very important especially on those roads where the traffic is heavy. Depending upon the materials used, roads can be divided into different types.
Chip seal : This is one of the most common types of road used in USA, Australia, New Zealand and Canada. This road is used for less busy streets like residential roads or industrial streets, country roads or highways. For making this type of road, a tar layer is spread on the surface and then fine gravel layer is pressed on it by rolling a steam roller. The excess of gravel is brushed aside by the labors so that they do not cause obstruction. When the road is newly constructed, you must drive slowly as some loose gravel can hit your windscreen. Chip seal are the most popular roads in the world. They are constructed very easily and rapidly.
Concrete : Some roads are also made of concrete. Concrete is made up of Portland, sand, water, rock and cement. These are comparatively stronger than the asphalt type of roads but take longer time for construction. These are also laid down in the areas of heavy traffic and busy commercial places.
Asphalt : Roads made from asphalt have really hit the world during the last decade or so and have become incredibly popular. These types of roads are mostly laid in western countries and are ideal for motorways, busy roads, main streets of the cities and urban commercial areas. These are very strong and do not wear and tear despite of hard and bulky transportation. These roads are made by mixing gravel and tar seal. It is mixed first by hand and then laid down on the surface. Afterwards, it is made smooth by pressing the uneven surfaces and left for drying. These roads are very strong but can make vehicles loose grip during wet season.
These types of roads are constructed in rural areas where there is no trafficking and to and fro of the vehicles are very less. In this type of road, fine gravel is poured on an evenly made surface of the ground and pressed so that the whole gravel adjusts to make a uniform path.
Roads made up of dirt are pathways in forests and bushes. They are not good for 4 wheelers mostly during the wet season when the dirt turns into mud. Dirt roads are only good for walking or going on a bicycle or tricycle. A horse ride too can be wonderful experience.