The term smog was initially coined during the Fifties when it was used to explain a combination of smoke and fog experienced in London. Metropolitan cities located along the west coast of US were also experiencing a special type of pollution in air. What we tend to generally take as “smog" nowadays is nothing but a mixture of pollutants, primarily created of ground-level ozone. The ozone can be useful or hazardous depending on its location. The ozone located higher than the planet within the stratosphere protects human health and its surroundings. But ground-level ozone causes health problems such as choking, coughing, and stinging eyes related to smog. Smog happens when emissions from business, motorcars, incinerators, open burning and alternative sources accumulate below the compact atmospheric zone. There are two types of smog: summer (the smog initially experienced in America) and winter (the one initially noticed in London).
Today, smog is seen principally in massive cities as the yellow cloud looming at the horizon. It’s seen prominently throughout the summer when the times are hot and when the wind is weak, however it's present throughout the year. The smog cloud is termed dangerous ozone, due to its toxic composition. It’s completely different from the naturally shaped ozone layer located within the stratosphere that is known to safeguard us from the ultraviolet rays. The dangerous ozone is the result of contact between nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds with daylight. What are these elements? They’re the pollutants created by vehicles, electricity production, and alternative combustion processes, as well as burning wood. The smog stays on the bottom and is the direct consequence of human activities.
Smog is formed of a mixture of air pollutants that are hazardous to health, damage the surrounding atmosphere and cause harm to the property. It’s been anticipated that ninety million Americans live in areas with ozone levels higher than the established standards for health safety. These people are severely influenced by pollutants on each day. Smog causes health issues like respiratory problems, asthma, and reduced resistance to lung infections and colds, and eye irritation. The ozone in smog additionally inhibits plant growth and might cause widespread harm to forest and crops. The haze is known to cause reduction in visibility. The smog or haze is especially noticeable from mountains and alternative stunning landscapes such as those in National Parks.
Smog is a visible example of air pollution. The horizon throughout the day is checked to ascertain what quantity haze there's within the air. Also, the concentrations of pollutants within the air are checked and the results reported to the general public. Standardized measures are established, such as the Pollution Standards Index (PSI) also referred to as the Air Quality Index, which permit comparison of pollution levels from town to town.
The 1990 Clean Air Act (US) established a comprehensive approach to reducing the widespread "criteria" pollutants that embrace the ozone, nitrogen oxides, and other particulates present in smog. EPA sets national standards for criteria pollutants, and therefore the states should take action to make sure that the standards are fulfilled. Regions that fail to fulfill the standards for a minimum of one criteria air pollutant are referred to as "nonattainment areas."Areas of nonattainment for criteria pollutants are classified in keeping with the extent of pollution. The five criteria’s for ozone nonattainment vary from marginal (relatively simple to wash up quickly) to extreme (will take lots of labor and an extended time to wash up).
The 1990 Clean Air Act uses these categories to tailor cleanup necessities depending upon the severity of the pollution and to line realistic pointers for meeting cleanup goals. Many of the smog cleanup involves automobiles such as cars, trucks, and buses. Strategies which will be needed by law to scale back and manage air emissions include state planning cleaning programs, bringing changes within the gasoline composition, use of different fuels (such as natural gas and electricity), and following restrictions made mandatory by individual communities. New steps are being taken by native governments across the world to scale back air pollution in nonattainment areas. These steps include banning charcoal barbecues and wood burning in stoves or fireplaces when pollution levels are high; developing programs to encourage carpooling and voluntary "ozone actions"; limiting traffic in congested areas; expanding or improving public transportation systems; requiring employers to contribute to employee mass transit costs; assessing "smog fees" on cars in proportion to the quantity of miles driven and vehicle emissions produced; and scrapping older automobiles , and those "super-dirty" fume emanating cars.