Cochlear Implants

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Innovation Info
Inventor (s): 
Adam M. Kissiah
Country (invented in): 
USA
Year Invented: 
1974
Image Credit: 
http://www.bcm.edu
Main Image: 

Cochlear Implants are electric devices that can be used in people who cannot hear or are deaf.  It provides them with a sense of sound. A cochlear implant  is surgically placed into the earof the patient. One can see an external piece that sits on the outside of the ear, the rest of the implants are placed inside the ear which are,  a microphone which picks up the sounds from the surrounding environment, speech processor which helps in processing the sound, a transmitter which converts sound into electric impulses and an electrode array that recieves the electric impulses and directs it to the auditory nerve. Cochlear implants help the deaf, by overriding the damaged parts in the ear and sending signals directly to the auditory nerve from the surrounding sounds so that the person learns to recognize these sounds and begin to identify them, thus learning the language of communication. Cochlear surgery may take upto 3 hours to complete. The electrode array is inserted in to the cochlea and the receiver is protected in the skull and the opening is closed with stitches. The patient may return home immediately in most of the cases.
 

 

 

Who invented Cochlear Implants?

Adam M. Kissiah was the first person to propose the idea of cochlear implant in July, 1974.

 

When was the Cochlear Implants invented?

1974.

 

When the patent was granted on the Cochlear Implants?

The first patent 4,063,048 was granted on cochlear implants to Adam M. Kissiah on December 13, 1977. For fmore information on the patent, visit, "Patent information on Cochlear Implants".

 

Who invented Cochlear Implants?

Adam M. Kissiah was the first person to propose the idea of cochlear implant in July, 1974.

 

When was the Cochlear Implants invented?

1974.

 

When the patent was granted on the Cochlear Implants?

The first patent 4,063,047 was granted on cochlear implants to Adam M. Kissiah on December 13, 1977. Later some advanced developments were made on cochlear implants and again the patent 31031 was reissued to Adam M. Kissiah on September, 1982.

 


Who was the patent granted to on the Cochlear Implants?

Adam M. Kissiah.

 


What is  a Cochlear Implant?

  •  Cochlear implant is an electronic device that provides the ability to hear sound for people who are deaf or have hearing problems. Hearing problems which cannot be solved by hearing aids, can be resolved by cochlear implants.
  •  When the small cells present in the inner ear known as cochlea are damaged, cochlear implants aresurgically placed into the ear which are connected to the auditory nerve directly.
  •  Electricity was the basis for the development of cochlear implant. In the 18th century, Alessandro Volta was the first person to build a sound system electrically but it had a tonal quality problem.  Based on the concept proposed by Volta, Duchenne in 1855 tried using AC current by inserting a vibrator into the circuit. The hearing quality was better than volta’s experiment.
  • It was finally, in 1868, that Brenner experimented with bipolar stimulation, ie., two electrodes by placing the electrodes distinctly away from each other. While he placed one electrode that was placed in saline in the external auditroy meatus, the other one was placed ona distant part of the body. This device came to be known as the Brennae Electrode.
  • In 1930 ,Ernest Wever was apsychologist but finally spent a lot of time and research in hearing. He worked with different scientists during his research on ear, such as, Charles Bray, Merle Lawrence, and Jack Vernon and learnt the cochlear connection to investigate the biomechanical function of the external. middle and inner ear.
  • It was S.Stevens and R. Clark Jones who studied the electric stimulation of the cochlea, concluded that there are three mechanisms of hearing in 1939
  • In 1950, Lundbergy tried to stimulate the audiroty nerve  by giving a sinusoidal current during a neurosurgery
  • In 1964, John M Doyle, William F House who were surgeons along with an Engineer, James Doyle implanted about 6 electrodes  in the patient who was able to repeat phrases. Though it was not very significant but was a success as the patient could repeat some phrases.
  • It was in 1967, that the long and continuous research on animals was done by Graeme Clark. He tried to stimulate the auditory nerve by placing an implant in the cochlea. His work was finally rewarded when it was implanted, on Red Sanders in 1978 who could finally hear and percieve sound.  He tried to fund his prototype through a telethon that was conducted on Channel 1 in Melbourne in the year 1974, which helped him raise enough to build the protoype. Finally, Cochlear enterprises Ltd, was setup in different countries such as US, Switzerland and other countries.
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