Aging is been systematically researched by Biogerontolgists, from many years. Biogerontolgy is a field of studying the biological processes of aging. Based on the research, there are seven basic causes for aging. The DNA damage theory of aging suggests that aging is a result of the buildup of unrepaired damage present in the DNA . The damage incorporates chemical reactions that alter DNA and/or get in the way with DNA replication. Even if both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage be the reason for aging, nuclear DNA is the major topic of this investigation. Either indirectly or directly , nuclear DNA damage can be a key aspect for aging. Copious studies of this type depicted that oxidative damage to DNA is predominantly the reason.
What are the key reasons for Aging process?
The idea of concentrating on transformation rather than slowing down aging is denoted as SENS or Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence, a term formerly inventd by Aubrey de Grey, an English author and theoretician in his book “The Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging”. SENS Foundation which works to improve, endorse and ensure extensive access to rejuvenation biotechnologies and ailments of aging. According to them , the seven types of damage are due to,
Loss of cell and shrinking tissue: Cell division replaces the weak cells in the body. But as we age, cells that we lose can no longer be replaced or they are replaced very slowly. Cell loss means lessening tissue and weaker muscles. In the heart muscle, it means a more brittle heart. A loss of neurons and mental problems, arise in the brain due to cell loss. Lately, it is found that a great alternative to cell loss is exercise, although its effects are however restricted to a greater extent. The resolution to this is by stimulating cell division or introducing fresh cells (repleniSENS).
Mutations in the cell nucleus: There are two kinds of changes that happen in our chromosomes as we age. They are mutations and epimutations. The mutations modifies the DNA, while the epimutations are modifications to the tendency of the DNA to be interpreted into proteins. However in few cases, alterations to the DNA can show the way to the development of cancer. Non-cancerous mutations and epimutations may not be a reason to the aging process in most cases, whereas in rare cases they do create a problem. This can be treated by taking away the genes required for telomerase, an enzyme active in cancer. (OncoSENS)
Mitochondria Mutations: The "power plants" of cells are the Mitochondria, since they perform a key role in production of energy. Similar to our nucleus of cells, mitochondria also have some of their own inborn matter that is actually susceptible to change. Mutated mitochondria might get out of control and root serious oxidation harm to tissues of our body system. They also are in charge of cell growth and the cell cycle. Mitochondria have their own mitochrondrial DNA (mtDNA), which programs a tiny but vital fraction of the proteins in the mitochondrion. The trouble is that the mitochrondrial environment is extremely oxidative, and the repair systems are much less convoluted than those in the cell nucleus, which contains most of the DNA. The effect is that mitochondria are highly susceptible to the accretion of mutations, which is assumed to speed up aging. Hence, stoping the buildup of mitochondrial mutations needs its own plan. The suggested way to prevent this is by moving the DNA into the cell nucleus for shielding (MitoSENS).
Cellular senescence: Occasionally cells can obtain a condition they lose the capacity to split and also decline to die, creating damage to adjacent cells. The 3 major groups of cells that can go into this destructive stage are: visceral fat cells, senescent cells and immune system cells. The troubles due to the build-up of these cells are insulin resistance, tissue degradation, and susceptibility to contamination. Basically, body is capable of destroying such damaging cells through apoptosis, an indication for the cell to destroy by itself. Other methods are required to destroy them, in case if the cells discontinue responding to these signals. The chief option to kill senescent and immune system cells are injecting something to force apoptosis or stimulating the immune system to kill the cells, although surgery can be used to remove visceral fat. This can be successfully done by using the immune system to destroy target cells or forcing the cell to destroy itself (ApoptoSENS).
Tissue stiffening from crosslinks: The body is much better in maintaining the cells clean inside than upholding proper functioning outside the cells. Proteins are commonly shattered and rebuilt to inside the cells. Whereas outside, some proteins are never recycled or very slowly recycled. These long-lasting proteins can make harms over a period of time. Sometimes, two proteins form a chemical bond due to the Chemical reactions called “crosslink”, which holds back their ability to slide across or beside each other. Tissues lose their elasticity, when too many crosslinks takes place, which leads to troubles. For example, in artery walls, tissue stiffening causes blood pressure raise. In order to uphold a youthful state, breaking these crosslinks is essential. This can be done by using specific enzymes or proteins to break crosslinks (GlycoSENS).
Intra cellular junk: There are lot types of intracellular and extra cellular junk. Body is quite fine at breaking proteins and other molecules in the cell which are of no use. Though, at times these molecules may undergo chemical changes that make the cell not capable of digesting it. At last, they end up in the lysosome, an organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic You do not have access to view this node, which is the highly potential area for the molecules to mortify. They end up as intracellular junk and stay there almost everlastingly, in case if the lysosome is not capable of destroying them. This creates diseases such as atherosclerosis, blindness, liver spots, and a mass of neurogenerative diseases.
Extra cellular junk: One of the reasons for old people’s skin to become rough and wrinkled is due to the extra cellular crosslink's. This is an additional form of debris outside the cells that mounts up with aging. Generally, cells are binded jointly by protein cross linkages, but these could become too opaque and lead to lot of diseases. This debris should be cleared out of the body, but as in the case of death-resistant cells, the body is not able to digest or remove the material. The amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients are an example of extra cellular junk. This web-like material accumulates in everyone's brains with age, but problems become visible only after a certain threshold has been reached. In supercentenarians, extracellular junk is one of the major harmful killers. The solution to this problem may be to stimulate the immune system to demolish the debris. (AmyloSENS).
In case, if all these causes of aging can be tackled using biotechnological solutions, then human beings might be able to live for thousands of years – as long as they do not die from unnatural means.
What are the other common ways to prevent aging?
The best way to treat aging skin is to ensure that we take a proactive approach to skin care and follow some simple steps to help prevent the early onset of aging and keep your skin hydrated and moisturized.
• Using a preservative free, paraben Free Skin Care System.
• Keeping Skin Clean.
• Keeping the Skin properly hydrated.
• Nourishing the skin with healthy ingredients.
• Using sunscreen lotions for the You do not have access to view this node.
• Supporting You do not have access to view this node's health and preventing premature aging with good supplements.