What is a Cloud Chamber?

PrintPrintEmailEmailSaveSave
Image Credit: 
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu
Main Image: 
Cloud chamber

The Cloud Chamber, also known as the Wilson chamber, is used for detecting particles of ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation consists of particles or electromagnetic waves that are energetic enough to detach electrons from atoms or molecules, therefore ionizing them. In its most basic form, a cloud chamber is a sealed environment containing a supersaturated (a solution that contains more of the dissolved material) vapor of water or alcohol. When an alpha or beta particle interacts with the mixture, it ionizes it. The resulting ions act as condensation nuclei (are small particles typically 0.2 micrometer), around which a mist will form (because the mixture is on the point of condensation). The high energies of alpha and beta particles mean that a trail is left, due to many ions being produced along the path of the charged particle. A cloud chamber is a device that makes visible the paths of particles emitted as a result of radioactive decay. One of the cloud chamber's greatest claims to fame is that it was used to discover the positron, the first observed form of antimatter.

 

What is the History of the Cloud Chamber?

A Scottish physicist, Charles Thomsan Rees Wilson (1869–1959), invented the Cloud Chamber. Inspired by sightings of the ‘Brocken spectre’, in 1894, he began to develop expansion chambers for studying cloud formation and optical phenomena in moist air. Brocken spectre or mountain spectre is the apparently enormous and magnified shadow of an observer, cast upon the upper surfaces of clouds opposite the sun. Soon, he discovered that ions could act as centers for water droplet formation in such chambers. He pursued the application of this discovery and perfected the first cloud chamber in 1911. In Wilson's original chamber the air inside the sealed device was saturated with water vapor, the air was made to expand inside the chamber by adiabatic (process that occurs without heat transfer) expansion. This cools the air and water vapor starts to condense. When an ionizing particle passes through the chamber, water vapor condenses on the resulting ions and the trail of the particle is visible in the vapor cloud. Wilson, along with Arthur Compton, an American physicist, received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1927 for his work on the Cloud Chamber.

 

What are the components of a Cloud Chamber?

A simple cloud chamber consists of the following parts:

  • sealed environment,
  • radioactive source (if needed),
  • dry ice or a cold plate and
  • any kind of alcohol source (which allows easy evaporation)

 

How does the Cloud Chamber work?

  • The chamber is saturated by a lightweight methyl alcohol vapor. The alcohol falls as it cools down and the cold condenser offers a steep temperature gradient. The outcome is a supersaturated environment.
  • The alcohol vapor condenses around ion trails left behind by the travelling ionizing particles. The result is cloud formation, seen in the cloud chamber by the presence of droplets falling down to the condenser.
  • As particles pass through the chamber they leave ionization trails and since the alcohol vapor is supersaturated it condenses onto these trails.
  • Just above the cold condenser plate there is an area of the chamber which is sensitive to radioactive tracks. At this height, most of the alcohol has not condensed. This means that the ion trail left by the radioactive particles provides an optimal trigger for condensation and cloud formation.
  • This sensitive area is increased in height by employing a steep temperature gradient, convection (the transfer of heat through a fluid caused by molecular motion) and very stable conditions.
  • A strong electric field is often used to extract cloud tracks down to the sensitive region of the chamber and increase the sensitivity of the chamber.
  • While tracks from sources can still be seen without a voltage supply, background tracks are very difficult to observe.
  • In addition, the voltage can also serve to prevent large amounts of "rain" from obscuring the sensitive region of the chamber, caused by condensation forming above the sensitive area of the chamber. This means that ion trails left by radioactive particles are hidden by constant precipitation. The black background makes it easier to observe cloud tracks.
  • If a tangential light source which is the light beams striking the surface with a very small angle, is used, then the white droplets against the black background is illuminated. Drops should be viewed from a horizontal position. If the chamber is working correctly, tiny droplets should be seen condensing.

 

What are some Particle-detection chambers other than Cloud Chamber?

  • The diffusion cloud chamber: This chamber varies from the expansion cloud chamber in that it is continuously sensitized to radiation, and in that the bottom must be cooled to a rather low temperature, generally as cold as or colder than dry ice. Alcohol vapor is also often used due to its different phase transition temperatures. The most common fluid used in them is isopropyl alcohol, though methyl alcohol can be used as well. There are also water-cooled diffusion cloud chambers, using ethylene glycol.
  • The spark chamber: This is an electrical device that uses a grid of un-insulated electric wires in a chamber, with voltages applied between the wires. Microscopic charged particles cause some ionization of the air along the path of the particle, and this ionization causes sparks to fly between the associated wires. The presence and location of these sparks is then registered electrically, and the information is stored for later analysis, such as by a digital computer.
  • The bubble chamber: Bubble chambers can be made physically larger than cloud chambers, and since they are filled with much-denser liquid material (liquid hydrogen, the liquid state of the element hydrogen), they disclose the tracks of much more energetic particles. These factors quickly made the bubble chamber the major particle detector for a number of decades, so that cloud chambers were effectively outdated in fundamental research by the start of the 1960s. This was invented by Donald A. Glaser of the United States in 1952, and for this, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1960.

 

External References
Related Videos: 
See video

Comments

Wow what a Great Information about World Day its exceptionally pleasant educational post. a debt of gratitude is in order for the post. Jittery Monks

Just try to specify ones substance can be as mind blowing. This clarity with your post is radiant and that i may believe you're a master for this issue. High caliber alongside your agree grant me to grab your present provide for keep changed by utilizing drawing nearer blog entry. You rock several alongside you ought to go on the pleasurable take care of business. Kids health

I acknowledge all that you have added as far as anyone is concerned base.Admiring the time and exertion you put into your web journal and nitty gritty data you offer.Thanks. concept

An intriguing dialog is value remark. I feel that it is best to compose more on this matter, it may not be a forbidden theme however normally people are insufficient to chat on such subjects. To the following. Here"s to you. Kids health

Best work you have done, this online site is truly cool with incredible certainties. hire editors

I think this is a standout amongst the most critical data for me. Furthermore, i'm happy perusing your article. In any case, ought to comment on some broad things, The site style is impeccable, the articles is truly awesome : D. Great job, here's to you Every Door Direct Mail Postcard Prints

Awesome substance material and extraordinary format. Your site merits the majority of the positive input it's been getting. Airco kopen

We are One of the best Affordable SEO Services Provider. We have a Professional team to providing Qualitative SEO work and 100% Ranking for your Business site/blog. If You want get top marketing solution by using Unique and Effective SEO Strategy for helping your site improving visiblity and ranking in Google Search Engine. We Believe in Clients Satisfaction. Increase Your ROI, So Contact Now!!! Affordable SEO Service UK

The facts you've got posted could be very beneficial. The websites you've got referred become suitable. thank you for sharing... 1xbet

I have read through other blogs, but they are cumbersome and confusing more than your post. I hope you continue to have such quality articles to share with everyone! I believe a lot of people will be surprised to read this article!
usps tracking

A debt of gratitude is in order For sharing this Superb article.I utilize this Article to demonstrate my task in college.it is valuable For me Great Work. Grammarly Discount 2018

The best way to stay on trend-alert is to regularly check out fashion jewelry blogs such as Jewelry Whore. I also recommend setting up Google Alerts for the keywords "jewelry trends". Do this, and Google will email you when new articles pop up about your chosen keywords. Making a piece of jewelry is always a challenge but it’s easier if you work it through in your mind before you begin, and then convince yourself that this is a good starting point. The gem I am working with is a lovely and unusual cut, a square cushion shaped garnet with a modified step cut crown and multi-faceted pavilion. Buy cheap Autodesk Autocad price

Amazing article. Extremely intriguing to peruse. I truly love to peruse such a decent article. Much obliged! continue shaking. guest post

Great article, and one that I feel more people should be taught in schools and colleges…
a10

anusia. Teori dasarnya simpel. Ia mengatakan jasa konstruksi baja tangerang jasa konstruksi baja wf
jasa non konstruksi jasa konstruksi jembatan
jasa pembuatan konstruksi billboard jasa konstruksi bangunan
jasa konstruksi baja ringan jasa konstruksi
jasa konstruksi baja bangun pabrik jasa konstruksi besi baja
jasa konstruksi baja di jakarta jasa konstruksi gudang
jasa konstruksi malang jasa konstruksi gedung
fabrikasi jasa konstruksi baja wf
fabrikasi logam jasa konstruksi jembatan
fabrikasi stainless steel jasa konstruksi bangunan
fabrikasi baja jasa konstruksi
fabrikasi tangki jasa konstruksi besi baja
jasa fabrikasi jasa konstruksi gudang
fabrikasi pipa jasa konstruksi gedungvilla bukit danau
fabrikasi stainless steel jakarta jasa konstruksi baja wf
fabrikasi kapal jasa konstruksi jembatan
konstruksi jembatan baja sederhana jasa konstruksi bangunan
konstruksi baja yogyakarta jasa konstruksi
konstruksi baja bergelombang jasa konstruksi besi baja
konstruksi baja atap jasa konstruksi gudang
konstruksi baja atau beton jasa konstruksi gedung
konstruksi atap baja konvensional jasa konstruksi baja wf
sewa villa bukit danauahli konstruksi baja jasa konstruksi jembatan
konstruksi baja bogor jasa konstruksi bangunan
konstruksi baja bangunan tinggi jasa konstruksi
konstruksi baja bangunan pabrik jasa konstruksi besi baja
konstruksi baja bekasi jasa konstruksi gudang
konstruksi baja berat surabaya jasa konstruksi gedung
konstruksi balok baja jasa konstruksi baja wf
jual konstruksi baja bekas jasa konstruksi jembatan
konstruksi baja pada bangunan jasa konstruksi bangunan
konstruksi baja di bandung jasa konstruksi
kontraktor konstruksi baja bandung jasa konstruksi besi baja
konstruksi baja cikande jasa konstruksi gudang
konstruksi baja cikande pt jasa konstruksi gedung
konstruksi baja di cirebon jasa konstruksi baja wf
konstruksi baja kanal c jasa konstruksi jembatan
konstruksi baja di surabaya jasa konstruksi bangunan
konstruksi baja di bogor jasa konstruksi
konstruksi baja di palembang jasa konstruksi besi baja
konstruksi baja denpasar jasa konstruksi gudang
konstruksi baja di batam jasa konstruksi gedung
konstruksi baja di yogyakarta jasa konstruksi baja wf
konstruksi baja di banyuwangi jasa konstruksi jembatan
konstruksi baja di medan jasa konstruksi bangunan
konstruksi baja di jogja jasa konstruksi
konstruksi baja dan beton jasa konstruksi besi baja
konstruksi baja di malang jasa konstruksi gudang
konstruksi baja di bekasi jasa konstruksi gedung
konstruksi baja di semarang jasa konstruksi baja wf
konstruksi dinding baja jasa konstruksi jembatan
jasa konstruksi baja di banyuwangi jasa konstruksi bangunan
ereksi konstruksi baja jasa konstruksi
engineer konstruksi baja
jasa konstruksi besi baja
konstruksi baja gedung futsal jasa konstruksi gudang
fabrikasi konstruksi baja jasa konstruksi gedung
harga konstruksi baja futsal jasa konstruksi baja wf
biaya konstruksi baja futsal jasa konstruksi jembatan
konstruksi baja gudang surabaya jasa konstruksi bangunan
konstruksi baja gable jasa konstruksi
konstruksi gudang baja wf jasa konstruksi besi baja
konstruksi baja tahan gempa jasa konstruksi gudang
perhitungan biaya konstruksi baja gudang jasa konstruksi gedung
konstruksi baja harga jasa konstruksi baja wf
konstruksi baja honeycomb jasa konstruksi jembatan
konstruksi baja hanggar jasa konstruksi bangunan
harga konstruksi baja rumah jasa konstruksi
harga konstruksi baja surabaya jasa konstruksi besi baja
harga konstruksi baja untuk rumah tinggal jasa konstruksi gudang
harga konstruksi baja untuk pabrik jasa konstruksi gedung
konstruksi baja indonesia jasa konstruksi baja wf
perusahaan konstruksi baja di indonesia jasa konstruksi jembatan
konstruksi baja jogja jasa konstruksi bangunan
konstruksi jalan baja jasa konstruksi
konstruksi baja pada jembatan jasa konstruksi besi baja
konstruksi baja wf jakarta jasa konstruksi gudang
bengkel las konstruksi baja jakarta jasa konstruksi gedung
jasa konstruksi baja semarang jasa konstruksi baja wf
jasa konstruksi baja berat jasa konstruksi jembatan
konstruksi baja kastela jasa konstruksi bangunan
konstruksi kolom baja jasa konstruksi
konstruksi kapal baja 1 jasa konstruksi besi baja
konstruksi kabel baja jasa konstruksi gudang
kontraktor konstruksi baja di surabaya jasa konstruksi gedung
kegagalan konstruksi baja jasa konstruksi baja wf
konstruksi baja lantai 2 jasa konstruksi jembatan
konstruksi baja lengkung jasa konstruksi bangunan
konstruksi baja lanjut jasa konstruksi
konstruksi baja lift jasa konstruksi besi baja
konstruksi atap baja lengkung jasa konstruksi gudang
konstruksi baja murah jasa konstruksi gedung
konstruksi baja masjid jasa konstruksi baja wf
konstruksi baja medan jasa konstruksi jembatan
konstruksi baja minimalis jasa konstruksi bangunan
konstruksi baja menara air jasa konstruksi
konstruksi baja malang jasa konstruksi besi baja
konstruksi baja per m2 jasa konstruksi gudang
jasa konstruksi baja makassar jasa konstruksi gedung
konstruksi baja nganjuk jasa konstruksi baja wf
ongkos konstruksi baja jasa konstruksi jembatan
konstruksi baja palembang jasa konstruksi bangunan
konstruksi baja pada bangunan bertingkat jasa konstruksi
konstruksi baja pekanbaru jasa konstruksi besi baja
konstruksi baja pipa jasa konstruksi gudang
konstruksi baja rumah tingkat jasa konstruksi gedung
konstruksi baja siku jasa konstruksi baja wf
sewa villa puncak
konstruksi baja solo jasa konstruksi jembatan
konstruksi baja sederhana jasa konstruksi bangunan
konstruksi baja stadion jasa konstruksi
konstruksi baja sambungan baut jasa konstruksi besi baja
konstruksi baja samarinda jasa konstruksi gudang
konstruksi sambungan baja jasa konstruksi gedung
bengkel konstruksi baja surabaya jasa konstruksi baja wf
konstruksi baja teknik sipil jasa konstruksi jembatan
perusahaan konstruksi baja surabaya jasa konstruksi bangunan
konstruksi baja tangga jasa konstruksi
konstruksi turap baja jasa konstruksi besi baja
konstruksi baja batang tekan jasa konstruksi gudang
teknologi konstruksi baja jasa konstruksi gedung
tahapan konstruksi baja jasa konstruksi baja wf
konstruksi baja untuk bangunan jasa konstruksi jembatan
konstruksi baja untuk ruko jasa konstruksi bangunan
konstruksi baja untuk pabrik jasa konstruksi
sistem konstruksi baja untuk struktur bangunan jasa konstruksi besi baja
konstruksi baja vs beton jasa konstruksi gudang
konstruksi baja wf 300 jasa konstruksi gedung
jasa konstruksi grade jasa konstruksi jembatan
tarif jasa pelaksana konstruksi gred 3 jasa konstruksi bangunan
kak jasa konstruksi pembangunan gedung jasa konstruksi
jasa konstruksi holcim jasa konstruksi besi baja
jasa konstruksi hotel jasa konstruksi gudang
jasa konstruksi hartoyo jasa konstruksi gedung
jasa hitung konstruksi jasa konstruksi baja wf
harga jasa konstruksi baja wf jasa konstruksi jembatan
harga jasa konstruksi besi jasa konstruksi bangunan
jasa konstruksi jalan jasa konstruksi
jasa konstruksi luar negeri jasa konstruksi besi baja
jasa konstruksi listrik jasa konstruksi gudang
jasa konstruksi lampung jasa konstruksi gedung
jasa las konstruksi jasa konstruksi baja wf
jasa konstruksi medan jasa konstruksi jembatan
jasa konstruksi makassar jasa konstruksi bangunan
jasa konstruksi migas jasa konstruksi
jasa konstruksi manado jasa konstruksi besi baja
jasa non konstruksi migas jasa konstruksi gudang
jasa konstruksi nasional jasa konstruksi gedung
jasa pemborongan non konstruksi jasa konstruksi baja wf
jasa konstruksi oleh orang pribadi jasa konstruksi jembatan
jasa konstruksi pabrik jasa konstruksi bangunan
jasa konstruksi pma jasa konstruksi
jasa konstruksi psak jasa konstruksi besi baja
jasa perhitungan konstruksi jasa konstruksi gudang
jasa pembuatan konstruksi baja jasa konstruksi gedung
jasa pemasangan konstruksi baja jasa konstruksi baja wf
jasa konstruksi reklame jasa konstruksi jembatan
jasa konstruksi semarang jasa konstruksi bangunan
jasa konstruksi sipil jasa konstruksi
jasa konstruksi spbu jasa konstruksi besi baja
sni jasa konstruksi jasa konstruksi gudang
jasa konstruksi bangunan surabaya jasa konstruksi gedung
jasa konstruksi tower jasa konstruksi baja wf
jasa konstruksi tarif jasa konstruksi jembatan
jasa konstruksi terbesar di indonesia jasa konstruksi bangunan
jasa konstruksi tanpa npwp jasa konstruksi
jasa konstruksi jawa tengah jasa konstruksi besi baja
jasa konstruksi baja wf bandung jasa konstruksi gudang
website jasa konstruksi jasa konstruksi gedung
www.jasa konstruksi.net jasa konstruksi baja wf
www.jasa konstruksi jasa konstruksi jembatan
jasa konstruksi yogyakarta jasa konstruksi bangunan
jasa konstruksi baja di yogyakarta jasa konstruksi
jasa konstruksi berapa jasa konstruksi besi baja
jasa konstruksi besi di solo jasa konstruksi gudang
jasa konstruksi baja di surabaya jasa konstruksi gedung
jasa konstruksi baja denpasar jasa konstruksi baja wf
jasa borongan konstruksi baja jasa konstruksi jembatan
jasa konstruksi atap baja ringan jasa konstruksi bangunan
harga borongan jasa konstruksi baja jasa konstruksi
jasa pekerjaan konstruksi baja jasa konstruksi besi baja
jasa konstruksi bangunan jakarta jasa konstruksi gudang
biro jasa konstruksi dan bangunan jasa konstruksi gedung
jasa konstruksi dan bangunan jasa konstruksi baja wf
fabrikasi besi baja jasa konstruksi jembatan
fabrikasi baja di jakarta jasa konstruksi bangunan
fabrikasi struktur jasa konstruksi
jasa fabrikasi baja jasa konstruksi besi baja
jasa fabrikasi metal jasa konstruksi gudang
jasa fabrikasi surabaya jasa konstruksi gedung
jasa fabrikasi cikarang jasa konstruksi baja wf
jasa fabrikasi pipa jasa konstruksi jembatan
harga jasa fabrikasi baja jasa konstruksi bangunan
harga jasa fabrikasi jasa konstruksi
jasa fabrikasi tangki jasa konstruksi besi baja
Jual Jaket Parka Jual Jaket Parka
Jaket Parka Jaket Parka
jasa konstruksi gudang jasa konstruksi gedung
jasa konstruksi baja wf
jasa konstruksi jembatan jasa konstruksi bangunan

Love what you're doing here folks, keep it up!.. split rail fence cost

I read that Post and got it fine and informative. 100% Manually submission on All Sites SBM

Just try to specify ones substance can be as mind blowing. This clarity with your post is radiant and that i may believe you're a master for this issue. High caliber alongside your agree grant me to grab your present provide for keep changed by utilizing drawing nearer blog entry. You rock several alongside you ought to go on the pleasurable take care of business. house fence

If you wanna the latest update so join the most window 10 it is one of the best-operating systems for the web users so go on the windows 10 help page and get the access to the setting i sure you like the best work most people use this in his window.