The initial stage of the cell cycle is known as Interphase. It directly paves the way for mitosis, or cell division, and is the state in which the cells use up the majority of its existence. Interphase is a stage in the cell cycle when a cell doubles its cytoplasm and synthesizes DNA. Interphase is also considered to be the 'living' phase of the cell, in which the cell obtains nutrients, grows, reads its DNA, and conducts other "normal" cell functions. The cells increase its size and make a copy of its DNA, during cell division. In interphase, the cell gets itself ready for mitosis, the process by which a eukaryotic cell separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets in two nuclei or meiosis, a type of cell division necessary for sexual reproduction. Interphase can be predictable, under a microscope, since the nuclear membrane (a layer that surrounds the genetic material) is unbroken, and chromosomes are not visible, though the nucleolus (a non-membrane bound structure) may be noticeable as an enlarged dark spot.
What are the stages of Interphase?
Interphase is the cell cycle between nuclear divisions. It is where chromosomes are extended and functionally active. The precise sub-phases of interphase comprises of the first gap phase (G1), synthesis (S) and the second gap phase (G2).
In First Gap Phase (Gap 1), the cell cultivates or grows and operates normally. Large amount protein synthesis takes place and the cell multiplies to about double its original size, additional organelles are formed which rises the quantity of the cytoplasm, in this phase. Cells might stay in this phase for very long periods of time, in case, if the cell does not undergo division. The First Gap Phase inter-phase ends with a 'restriction point or checkpoint'. Checkpoints are used in the cell cycle to make sure that only strong cells with no mutations are copied all through the division process. Cells not passing the checkpoint is put into the gap zero (G0) phase. Nearly all human body cells are in G0 at any given time. They may terminate their lives without dividing, or they might be called back into mitosis whenever desirable.
In case, if the cells surpass the checkpoint, it jumps into the Synthesis (S) phase. During the S phase, cells duplicate their chromosomes. Chromosomes hold all genetic details that organize the cell's development in its life cycle. In preparation for division, chromosomes need to make an exact copy of them. These copies will engage the new cell that results after division. The cell copies its DNA in this. This phase is also known as the “Swanson phase”.
Second Gap Phase (Gap 2), is the phase in which the cell start its growth yet again in preparation for mitosis. Subsequent to the duplication of chromosomes appropriately, the cell shifts into the Second Gap Phase subphase. This last stage of interphase involves more protein fabrication and formation of organelle. The entire preparations for division should essentially be finished in the Second Gap Phase. During mitosis, the Organelles and cytoplasm which are formed will be consistently alienated among the cells. Second Gap Phase finish with one more checkpoints. Enzymes, like protein kinase, verify the cell's deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to correct the mistakes, before the cell is permitted to carry on the cell cycle into the mitotic phase. If the enzymes are free of errors, the cells can then move on into mitosis and duplicate. On the other hand, cells which are not passing this examination are not allowed to enter into 'G0' phase.
What happens during the cell cycle?
Cytokinesis refers to the process of a single cell dividing its cytoplasm to create two daughter cells. This process classically occurs as the final stage of cell division after mitosis and helps assist in chromosome number protection throughout cellular regeneration. Following the process of cytokinesis of the mitotic stage, the recently separated cells may travel back to the First Gap Phase of interphase and begin the cycle once again. It is essential for them to pass the checkpoint inspections once more prior to passing on from interphase. The processes prolong until the cells experiences programmed cell death or apoptosis.