Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Matter comprises of atoms and other particles that have mass. Matter is anything made of atoms and molecules. Atom is the smallest particle of matter that holds on to the individuality of the substance. The combination of atoms is called a molecule. Nevertheless, there is no one specific meaning for the word "matter," since various fields use the term in different manner and occasionally also in a mismatched manner. Matter is generally considered to exist in four states or phases. They are solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Each phase of matter has its own chemical and physical properties. All matter can be acknowledged by its properties, by its uniqueness and performance.
What is the History background of Matter?
In the 19th century, after the invention of the periodic table, atoms were considered as the primary elements of matter. Atoms created molecules and compounds. In the 19th century, the term "matter" was actively discussed by a host of scientists and philosophers. The knowledge of matter started a quick development, at the end of the nineteenth century. A Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, in his book “Matter and Motion”, alienated "matter" from space and time, and portrayed it in terms of the object referred to in “Newton's first law of motion”. In 1870, one of the textbook deliberations portrayed that matter is made up of atoms. By the end of 19th century the invention of the electron, and in the near the beginning of 20th century, happened the invention of the atomic nucleus, and the origin of particle physics. From all those inventions, matter was considered to enclose electrons, protons and neutrons combining to create atoms. Currently, it is clear that even protons and neutrons are not inseparable, they can be divided into quarks, while electrons are part of a particle family called leptons. Both quarks and leptons are elementary particles, and are at present viewed as being the basic components of matter.
What are the General properties of matter?
Solid: A solid has a specific shape and volume. The atoms or molecules that comprise a solid are jam-packed intimately and are not compressible. Since, all solids have some thermal energy, its atoms will vibrate. Nevertheless, this movement is tiny and very fast, and cannot be observed under ordinary conditions.
Liquid - A liquid has a specific volume, but can change shape through flowing. Liquids are analogous to solids in that the particles touch. Though, the particles are able to move around. As, particles are able to touch each other, the densities of liquid will be close to that of a solid. Given that, the liquid molecules can budge about, they will take the shape of their container or vessel.
Gas –Gas has no specific shape or volume. If unimpeded, gases will spread out for ever. If restricted, they will take the shape of their container. This is due to the fact that the gas particle has sufficient energy to conquer attractive forces. Each of the particles is well separated resulting in a very low density.
Plasma- Plasma is a cloud of protons, neutrons and electrons where all the electrons have come close from their individual molecules and atoms, giving the plasma the capability to act as a whole, rather than as a group of atoms. Plasma is an ionized gas, a gas into which enough energy is provided to free electrons from atoms or molecules and to permits both species, ions and electrons, to coexist. Plasmas are the most common state of matter in the universe encompassing more than 99% of our visible universe and most of that not able to be seen. Plasma occurs naturally and makes up the sun, the core of stars. In universe, plasma is naturally occurring in flames, lightning and the auroras.
What are the phase changes of matter?
These phases of matter can change from one to another.
Melting - Melting takes place when a substance changes from a solid to a liquid
Boiling - Boiling takes place when a substance changes from a liquid to a gas
Condensing – condensation takes place when a gas changes to a liquid
Freezing - Freezing occurs when a liquid changes to a solid.
What are the Physical properties of matter?
Physical properties include the individuality that can be observed or measured. They can explain the substance completely. Physical properties will not engage changes in composition. Physical properties can be divided into Intensive or Extensive.
I)Intensive: Properties that do not rely on the quantity of the matter available and are used for identification
Density- It is the mass of the substance divided by its volume. The unit is mass/volume.
Melting/Freezing Point- The temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance are in balance (equilibrium) at atmospheric pressure.
Malleability - The capability of a substance to be compressed into thin sheets.
Ductility - The capacity of a substance to be made into thin wires.
Conductivity The capability of a substance to permit the flow of electricity or energy.
Hardness – It is the ability of a substance to withstand breaking.
Luster – It is the glossiness of a substance.
Color: It denotes the color of the matter or substance.
Odor: It is the smell or fragrance of the substance.
II)Extensive: Properties that relies on the quantity of matter available. These change constantly and so cannot be used for identification.
Length- A measurement of the length of the matter.
Solubility: The ability of the matter to dissolve.
Conductivity: The ability to transfer heat, electricity or sound.
Mass - The measurement of the quantity of matter in an entity or object in grams.
Weight - The measurement of the gravitational force of attraction of the earth performing on an object or entity.
Volume - A measurement of the quantity of space that a substance takes up.
What are the chemical properties?
The chemical properties of matter indicate how a substance or matter reacts in the presence of air, an acid, water, bases or other chemicals. It also indicates the reaction of matter if is heated.
What are the changes in matter?
Physical changes: These are reversible. Change in physical state but not its composition; change in size, shape or phase.